With just 36 hours to circle the world by air, a time well below the incubation period of most diseases can be contracted in many countries around the world. Year after year, more and more people who undertake international travel, even in developing countries that were just beaten goals: reducing the cost of flights were offered to many, the opportunity to visit distant countries, often for the first time.
The more than 700 million passengers who travel each year on the planet have a significant risk of getting sick and becoming a vehicle of infection to other people when they get back home. Every traveler should be aware that protect your health also means protecting those of others and that to do so we must also respect the culture and environment of the destination of travel.
In recent years, health authorities around the world have understood the importance of protecting human health from possible outbreaks of infection or precarious sanitary situation of the countries visited. On the one hand, the risk can be minimized through appropriate precautions, prevention and vaccination, taken prior to departure. Secondly, the identification and timely treatment of an imported disease are essential for preventing the disease from transmitting to others, to become a serious public health problem.
Before you travel
To reduce the risk of getting sick or having accidents while you are abroad, the ideal is to contact your doctor 4-6 weeks before you leave. Among the general factors to consider are:
1. Pre-existing diseases or disorders
2.Vaccination status (including the possibility of vaccines against diseases endemic in the destination of travel)
3.Allergies to foods or medicines
5.Any previous trips.
Depending on the destination of the journey, we must then consider all those who may become risk factors:
* Food and water, are often not thoroughly purified in many countries around the world
* Environmental conditions to which the body is not accustomed (altitude, drought, temperature too high)
* Presence of parasites in the environment and in animals with whom you may come into contact (by insects in various invertebrates, until poultry)
* Sexual behaviors that may increase the risk of transmitting infections.
The characteristics of the journey and the destination are important: a roadmap, place and length of stay, conditions of hygiene, and reason for travel (tourism, business, educational, humanitarian mission, etc.), season of the year, possible exposure to risk factors, epidemic in progress.
There are some categories of especially vulnerable people who require more care during the sight: children, elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals, but also people who are preparing to make a trip “adventure.”
Prophylaxis and vaccination
Vaccination can be an effective preventive of many diseases that can be contracted during travel. When you are about to leave, you should first check to be up to date with vaccinations under the national program. In particular, in Italy are compulsory immunization against diphtheria and tetanus (DT), polio (IPV) and hepatitis B (Hb), while those are strongly recommended to protect from measles, mumps and rubella (MPR) and infections with Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib).
Depending on the destination then the journey will be recommended the vaccine or prophylaxis against certain specific diseases. Today, no country requires the certificate of vaccination against smallpox and against cholera. The only certificate that should be required in international travel, up to some travelers, is that against yellow fever. Many countries require an international certificate of vaccination valuable to travelers arriving from infected areas or who have transited through those areas, while some require a certificate to all travelers entering, including those in transit. That requirement goes beyond what is stated in the International Health Regulations, however, vaccination is strongly recommended for travel outside of urban areas in countries including in areas endemic for yellow fever.
As for malaria, for each country situated in endemic areas is recommended chemoprophylaxis specification, according to species and level of drug resistance parasites
Detailed information on the vaccination to visit different areas of the world can be found in many institutional sites, including the Ministry of Health, the WHO or Cdc Americans. Epicenter are also on a number of health topics relevant to those preparing to make a trip:
* Viral Hepatitis
* Dengue fever
* Lassa fever
* Marburg hemorrhagic fever
* Sexually transmitted diseases
* Tossinfezioni food